Sunday, July 26, 2020

Mental Set and Seeing Solutions to Problems

Mental Set and Seeing Solutions to Problems Theories Cognitive Psychology Print How Mental Sets Prohibit Seeing Solutions to Problems By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on February 09, 2020 SuHP / Getty Images More in Theories Cognitive Psychology Behavioral Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology A mental set is a tendency to only see solutions that have worked in the past. This type of fixed thinking can make it difficult to come up with solutions and can impede the problem-solving process. For example, imagine that you are trying to solve a math problem in your algebra class. The problem seems similar to ones you have worked on previously, so you approach solving it in the same way. Because of your mental set, you are unable to see a simpler solution that might be possible. Why Mental Sets Can Make Problem-Solving More Difficult When we are solving problems, we often tend to fall back on solutions that have worked in the past. In many cases, this is a useful approach that allows us to quickly come up with answers. In some instances, however, this strategy can make it difficult to think of new ways of solving problems. These mental sets can sometimes lead to rigid thinking and can create difficulties in the problem-solving process. While in many cases we can use our past experiences to help solve the issues we face, it can make it difficult to see novel or creative ways of fixing current problems. For example, lets imagine that your vacuum cleaner has stopped working. When it has stopped working in the past, a broken belt was the culprit. Since past experience has taught you that the belt is a common issue, you replace the belt again, but this time the vacuum continues to malfunction. You ask a friend to come to take a look at the vacuum, and he discovers that one of the hose attachments was not connected, causing the vacuum to lose suction. Because of your mental set, you failed to notice a fairly obvious solution to the problem. Functional Fixedness Is a Type of Mental Set Functional fixedness is a specific type of mental set that involves only being able to see solutions that involve using objects in their normal or expected manner. Mental sets can be useful at times. By using strategies that have worked before, we are often able to quickly come up with solutions. This can save time and, in many cases, this approach does yield a correct solution. As you might imagine, however, mental sets can also create problems both large and small. In daily life, a mental set might prevent you from solving a relatively minor problem (like figuring out what is wrong with your vacuum cleaner). On a larger scale, mental sets might prevent scientists from discovering answers to real-world problems or make it difficult for a doctor to determine the cause of an illness. For example, a physician might see a new patient with symptoms similar to certain cases she has seen in the past, so she might diagnose this new patient with the same illness. Because of this mental set, the doctor might overlook symptoms that would actually point to a different illness altogether. Such mental sets can obviously have a dramatic impact on the health of the patient and possible outcomes.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Learn the German Translation for Silent Night, Stille Nacht

The popular Christmas carol Silent Night has been translated into several languages worldwide (like French), but it was originally written in German under the title Stille Nacht. It was just a poem before it was transformed into a song one Christmas night in Austria. If you already know the English version, try memorizing the German lyrics for three of the most common verses. The Story of Stille Nacht On Dec.24, 1818—just hours before Christmas mass—in the small Austrian village of Oberndorf, Pastor Joseph Mohr of St.Nicholas Kirche found himself in a bind. His musical plans for the evening church service were ruined because the organ had recently broken after a nearby river flooded. In a moment of inspiration, Mohr picked up a Christmas poem he had written two years earlier. He quickly set off to a neighboring village where his friend Franz Gruber, the church organist, lived. In just a few short hours that night, Gruber produced the first version of the world-renowned Christmas hymn Stille Nacht, written as a guitar accompaniment.   The Modern Stille Nacht The song as it is rendered today is slightly different from the original version of Stille Nacht. Folk singers and choir groups altered the original melody slightly as they performed the carol throughout Europe in the ensuing decades. The English version was written by an Episcopal priest, the Rev. John Freeman Young. However, the standard English version contains just three verses, whereas the German version contains six. Only verses one, two, and six from Mohr and Grubers original version are sung in English. There is also a version sung by Nina Hagen, an opera prodigy better known as the mother of punk. Stille Nacht in German Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht,Alles schlà ¤ft; einsam wachtNur das traute hochheilige Paar.Holder Knabe im lockigen Haar,Schlaf in himmlischer Ruh!Schlaf in himmlischer Ruh!Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht,Hirten erst kundgemachtDurch der Engel Halleluja,Tà ¶nt es laut von fern und nah:Christ, der Retter ist da!Christ, der Retter ist da!Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht,Gottes Sohn, o wie lachtLieb aus deinem gà ¶ttlichen Mund,Da uns schlà ¤gt die rettende Stund.Christ, in deiner Geburt!Christ, in deiner Geburt! Words: Joseph Mohr, 1816Music: Franz Xaver Gruber, 1818 Silent Night in English Silent night, holy nightAll is calm all is brightRound yon virgin Mother and ChildHoly infant so tender and mildSleep in heavenly peaceSleep in heavenly peaceSilent night, holy night,Shepherds quake at the sight.Glories stream from heaven afar,Heavnly hosts sing Alleluia;Christ the Savior is bornChrist the Savior is bornSilent night, holy night,Son of God, loves pure light.Radiant beams from Thy holy face,With the dawn of redeeming grace,Jesus, Lord, at Thy birthJesus, Lord, at Thy birth

Friday, May 8, 2020

The War On Drugs And Drug Abuse Resistance Education

Societies all around the world are culturally infused and, in many ways, defined by the â€Å"War on Drugs†. So, a question I had always wondered ever since I had begun D.A.R.E (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) in elementary school was how can such a war be won? President Nixon declaration of war on drugs during his presidency in 1971, sparked mass incarcerations for those deemed unfit for society through the possession, use, or dealing of illegal substances such as heroin, cocaine, etc. Between 1980 and 1997, the number of people in prison for non- violent drug related offenses skyrocketed from about 50,000 to more than 400,000 (Nadelmann,1 ). This astronomical spike is evident that this war on drugs was definitely having an effect on the general population of American, but as statistics show, not evenly. An examination of prisons in America showed that in 2010 one out of every one hundred and six white males, one out of every thirty six Hispanic males, and one out of every f ifteen black males were imprisoned in U.S. jails, nearly half of whom were incarcerated for nonviolent drug crimes (Sledge, 1). This racially unequal number of incarcerations goes to show the ineffectiveness of the War on Drugs at handling the current social economic status of many lower income area; such areas in which drugs run rampant due to the limited availability of sources of income. The problem in regards to these areas is that many people coming from low economic statuses and suffer form poorShow MoreRelatedExecutive Summary America s Most Popular Anti Drug Program Essay801 Words   |  4 Pagesmost popular anti-drug program D.A.R.E. has created an uproar. The D.A.R.E. program had many issues the main one being its ineffectiveness. How could the most widely used drug prevention program in the United States be deemed ineffective? What went wrong? â€Å"The prevention of drug abuse is an especially salient topic for school psychologists and other educational professionals. Schools are the primary setting for providing education and information aimed at the prevention of drug abuse. Previous meta-analyses†Read MoreThe War On Drugs And Its Effects On The United States817 Words   |  4 PagesThe War on Drugs had its official start during the Nixon administration when the president declared that drug abuse was now â€Å"public enemy number one.† Since then, over one trillion dollars have been spent on various programs to combat drug abuse. Ultimately, however, the War on Drugs did not limit national daily drug use. Instead, the War on Drugs had a greater impact on the United States’ justice, education, and healthcare systems than it did to limit citizen drug use. The War on Drugs hasRead MoreDrug Of Drug And Drug Abuse1538 Words   |  7 PagesDrug Resistance Drug use has become an increasing problem among high schoolers and teenagers around the same age. Ever since the drug war of the 1900s, drugs have been a major problem in today’s society. â€Å"Use of drugs such as opium, morphine, and other byproducts were common in twentieth century America† (Dobkin, 1998). While most students in standard high school drug education know about the use of coca leaves in Coca-Cola and the opium trade in China, drug addiction during the century is muchRead MoreSchool Based Drug Use Prevention Programs1333 Words   |  6 PagesSchool-based drug use prevention programs have been an important part of the United State’s anti drug campaign since the late 70’s. Although there have been many different programs of all shapes and sizes, none have been bigger or more iconic than the D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program. D.A.R.E. was created in 1983 by the Los Angeles Police Department and the Los Angeles Unified School District. D.A.R.E. uses specially trained law enforcement officers to teach drug use preventionRead MoreIntervention Of All Ineffective Delinquency Prevention Programs Essay903 Words   |  4 Pages(2003:130). Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) is a City of Los Angeles Government substance abuse prevention education program that seeks to prevent the use of controlled drugs, membership in gangs, and violent behavior. Founded in Los Angeles in 1983 as a joint initiative of the-LAPD chief Daryl Gates and the Los Angeles Unified School District as a demand-side drug control strategy of the American War on Drugs. Students who enter the program sign a pledge not to use drugs or join gangsRead MoreDrug Abuse And Its Effects On The United States Essay879 Words   |  4 PagesDrug abuse is worldwide problem and one that has plagued the United States for decades. Drug abuse negatively impacts not only the individual user, but also our society as a whole. The fight to prevent the m anufacturing and trafficking of illegal drugs into the country has made very little impact on its accessibility to those that wish to partake. According to the National Drug Control Budget Report for 2015, the President of the United States request $25.4 Billion in Fiscal Year 2015 in orderRead MoreAnti Drug Use And Abuse1413 Words   |  6 PagesThe twentieth century was filled with illegal drug use and abuse among people from all walks of life including the rich and famous to the humble housewife and everyone in between. The type of drugs that were popular changed during the century and in return the views on them from society changed with them. Legislation had to continually be updated in order to keep up with the times as well. In the 1952 Dwight Eisenhower was elected President of the United States and his administration started toRead MoreDrug Use And Its Effect On Society1663 Words   |  7 Pagesmany thresholds of college. Drug use has become just another part of this crazy college experience from binge drinking to smoking pot to taking psychedelic drugs just to see what happens. This idea of being young and invincible is fueling kids to make decisions their parents would not be happy with. With movies and other forms of media glorifying drugs it isn’t surprising to see the youth following in their footsteps. College is not portrayed as a place of education but a place to get wasted andRead MoreDrug Abuse Is A Worldwide Problem Essay976 Words   |  4 PagesDrug abuse is a worldwide problem and one that has plagued the United States for decades. Drug abuse negatively impacts not only the individual user, but also our society as a whole. The fight to prevent the manufacturing and trafficking of illegal drugs into the country has made very little impact on its accessibility to those that wish to partake. According to the National Drug Control Budget Report for 2015, the President of the United States request $25.4 Billion in Fiscal Year 2015 in orderRead MoreThe Impacts of the War on Drugs1075 Words   |  4 Pages The War On Drugs has lasted many years, including before it was officially called â€Å"War On Drugs.† The prohibition of drugs first got its start in the late 1800’s with anti-opium laws, focusing on chinese immigrants. This was common with the first anti-drug laws. It entirely about scientific based facts on what the effects or risks of the drugs, rather who was associated with the use of the specific drugs. For example, the anti-cocaine laws in the early 1900’s were directed at black men, and the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Final Paper Reilgion Freud And Lewis Free Essays

On the other hand Freud – the founder of psychoanalysis and an atheist could only produce the kind of love that was reciprocal. I believe that they were tied to their views on religion by their understanding of what love was to them. Lewis once believed or at least had to some degree thought like Freud. We will write a custom essay sample on Final Paper Reilgion Freud And Lewis or any similar topic only for you Order Now As I relate â€Å"Religion: Why Bother† I couldn’t help but think about â€Å"The watch out† Attitude: Religion Is Dangerous stated â€Å"Religion Is both psychologically and sociologically dangerous. Freud and Lexis’s perspectives on love differ because Lewis focuses on God while Freud focuses on self. One on hand. Lexis’s explains that Gods love in man enables him to love unconditionally. For an example, Lewis believed the divine gift love in a man enables him to love what is not durably lovable – lepers, criminals, enemies and morons. On the other hand, Freud believes on the gratification of self because a man’s beliefs and behavior stem from his own childhood fears and desires. Moreover, Freud and Lewis perspectives on love are tied together because they focus on the affection for family, friends and sexual love; however, Lewis added a fourth category – love of God. Lexis’s response to Fraud’s critique on religion is that love does not have an ulterior motive. In my opinion, the viewpoints within â€Å"Religion: Why Bother† are self- centered rather than leafless because there has to more than Fraud’s type of love; therefore, most circumstances do not revolve around oneself. Because God Is love. Lexis’s perspective on love is more convincing than Fraud’s for the reason that Lewis acknowledged that to believe in God and to pray, were the beginning of his extroversion. The light came on, He had been taken out of himself. BY BFY5050 degree thought like Freud. As I relate â€Å"Religion: Why Bother† I couldn’t help but think about â€Å"The Watch Out† Attitude: Religion Is Dangerous stated â€Å"Religion is both differ because Lewis focuses on God while Freud focuses on self. One on hand, How to cite Final Paper Reilgion Freud And Lewis, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Motorcycles, A Mechanized Version Of A Horse Some May Say, Were First

?Motorcycles, a mechanized version of a horse some may say, were first created in the early 1900's?. (Scott, p.7) Harley Davidson, a family run business for over 65 years, produced one of the first American made motorcycles. ?Through the years of boom and bust Harley Davidson was known exclusively as the builder of large, air-cooled V-twin engines, powering mostly large, heavyweight motorcycles?. (Rafferty, p.8) Harley still remains the foundation of motorcycles today. The first prototype Harley-Davidson was developed in 1901 by both William S. Harley and Arthur Davidson. Throughout their years of building different models they worked on improving the Harley piece by piece and came out with a bike that stood out for it's safety measures and advances. Harley Davidson was also known for its powerful V-twin engine which appeared in 1909. Their first attempt at developing the engine was unsuccessful, but after undergoing revisions in the design it reappeared in 1911. Its new engine was more suitable for the use of a sidecar because it produced more power. The sidecar was used mainly for carrying the wife and family and required the extra horsepower from the engine. ?The tempo of the company picked up until in 1918, when orders were helped by the military, Harley-Davidson was the world's largest motorcycle company.? (Scott, p.21) In the mid 1920's Harley-Davidson decided to expand and manufacture bikes for racing even though the original design wasn't intended for racing use. The developer's opinions changed when they saw that money could be made and that their motorcycle was one of the top-of-the-line bikes on the market for this kind of use. Many private Harley owners that raced found the motorcycle to hold up well on the track. Once the Harley manufacturers found out about this they started to construct a more advanced motorcycle for racing. By doing this they changed the V-twin style engine to a 37-cubic-inch sports model. This new model gave the bike more power, quicker starts, and an over all better performance. As the years went on new models were produced and during the fifties women began taking more active roles in motorcycling following examples set a decade before by the Motor Maids. This popular group of women riders, supported by the American Motorcycle Association (AMA), demonstrated that women needn't be only passengers. A women named Dot Robinson was the original president of the Motor Maids. New models of bikes were made to suit the desires and needs of women riders. The bike's engine size and metallic structure was configured specifically to fit a women. In the 1960's Harley riders started to develop an image of riders with black leather jackets, tattoo's, long hair and even beards. This had become not only a statement of fashion, but a preferred lifestyle. Motorcycle movies like ?Run, Angel Run!? staring William Smith, and ?Easy Riders? staring Dennis Hopper and Jack Nicholson became popular in the late 1960's. As a result of these motorcycle movies, motorcycle riding gained a ?bad boy? perception within the general population. Celebrities such as Sylvester Stallone, Billy Idol, and Elizabeth Taylor bought Harleys to fit and enhance their images. Even in today's world motorcycles have a bad reputation and image towards them but people still buy and ride them. There are many different models, companies and styles of motorcycles manufactured today. Many companies try to make their motorcycles look like Harleys because they know that Harley-Davidson is a well liked and ridden motorcycle. Most of these foreign bikes are shipped in from other countries. Although some of these bikes are made in America they still need foreign parts shipped in to build them. This is one of the reasons why people buy Harley-Davidsons, because they are all made in America. Instead of our money going to other countries it stays within the US. This benefits American people by keeping more people employed and less people on welfare. These bikes may be considered expensive but with all the work that is put into these machines it is worth it. For a less expensive motorcycle Honda and Kawasaki are examples of Japanese-made motorcycles that are street legal but are mainly made for going fast. These type of bikes aren't made for traveling long distances

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Why did the Japanese Annex Kor essays

Why did the Japanese Annex Kor essays Why did the Japanese annex Korea in 1910? The subject of Japanese-Korean relations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century is extremely controversial and potentially volatile, evoking powerful emotional reactions in both countries today. Consequently, the reasons for Japans eventual annexation of Korea remain highly debatable, exemplified by the contention surrounding the remark made by the Japanese Prime Minister Moriyama Tomiichi suggesting that Japans annexation of Korea was based on a legally valid agreement between the two countries. Indeed, finding a degree of truth in such a subject is by no means easy and this essay will try to be aware of the potential pitfalls that pro-Korean or pro-Japanese sentiment gives to the discipline. Nevertheless, most historians are in agreement that Japans annexation was not directed at ensuring the common wealth of the two nations but rather predominantly the wealth and security of the larger power. Similarly, the annexation probably represents the culmination of an ev olution over several years where Korea was swallowed up in stages , rather than anything dramatic or unexpected. Arguably Japan never originally intended to take control of her Korean neighbours but instead reacted to changing circumstances and environments. All this will theoretically be addressed in this essay, which will hope to arouse some contention while commanding a degree of objectivity. It may be argued that the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910 was an effect of the growing Japanese imperialism that was itself formulated as a response to the intrusion of the Western imperialists into East Asia. In the eyes of professor Eto, Meiji Japan was weak and puny compared to her European neighbours before she embarked on her colonial mission. Consequently, Japan became obsessed with finding what it called its proper place&...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Jug Bands and Homemade Instruments

Jug Bands and Homemade Instruments If youre looking for a way to introduce your kids to homemade music, theres no better way than with homemade instruments.  To musicians with a creative bent, any object can be turned into an instrument.   The jug band is a uniquely American musical institution that got its start as a bunch of household utensils. The first jug bands were formed in the areas around Memphis by out-of-work vaudeville entertainers. The musicians were often poor, so improvising and creating their own instruments was a necessity. Jug bands were typically street performers who played in hopes of earning money from passersby. A jug band makes a perfect topic for a multidisciplinary unit study. The jug band lends itself to  a range of subjects, including  science, math, history, and geography. For instance: Science: How do vibrating materials produce sound waves in the air?Math: When you divide the string on a washtub bass, it produces a different tone. See if you can figure out what fraction relates to what note of the musical scale.History: Explore the armonica, an instrument invented by Benjamin Franklin based on the sound of musical water glasses.Geography: What are some homemade instruments found in other countries?   And of course, making musical instruments is a great way to add hands-on activities to your study of music. You can make your own jug band using items found around the house or at the hardware store. Here’s what you need: The Jug The horn section of the band played right, sounds like a buzzy trombone. Traditional stoneware jugs look good, but plastic maple syrup containers or milk jugs are lighter (and unbreakable) and work just as well. To play: Hold the rim of the jug a little bit away from your mouth, purse your lips, and blow directly into the hole. Be prepared to make a rude noise, or even spit, to create the sound. Change notes by loosening or tightening your lips or by moving the jug closer or farther away. The Washtub Bass This string instrument consists of a cord stretching from a metal tub on the floor to the top of an upright wooden stick. Ours uses a kid-sized metal pail, a broom handle, and some colorful thin, soft nylon cord. Just follow these directions: With the pail upside down, make a small starter hole with a hammer and nail in the center of the bottom of the pail.Insert a small eyebolt into the hole, loop side up, with a nut above and below to hold it in place.Tie one end of the cord to the loop in the eyebolt.Cover the bottom end of the broomstick with a rubber cane tip to keep it from slipping. Rest the broomstick, threaded end up, on the rim of the pail. Tie the loose end of the cord to the top of the broomstick, as tightly as possible. To play: Hold the stick near your shoulder, put one foot on the rim of the pail to hold it in place, and pluck the string. Change notes by tilting the stick, or by pressing the string against the stick as if it were the fingerboard of a guitar. The Washboard Rasping instruments belong to the percussion family. Our â€Å"Dubl Handi† steel washboard from the Columbus Washboard Company cost $10 at an antique shop, but a ribbed paint roller tray or broiler pan can be substituted in a pinch. To play: The washboard is played by scraping something stiff against the ribs of the metal surface, such as a thimble or whisk broom. Musical Spoons The clicking of a pair of back-to-back teaspoons, also a percussion instrument, can add a fabulous rhythm to your band. To play: The trick is to hold the spoons firmly in your fist, handles pressed against your palm, with the knuckle of your index finger in-between, making a space of about half an inch. Stand with one foot up on a stool, and bang the hand with the spoons up and down between your thigh and the palm of your other hand. A bup-bup-bup, bup-bup-bup, like a horse’s hoofs clacking, gives a nice beat. Comb and Tissue Paper This kazoo-like instrument works on the same principle as the human voice. The paper vibrates to create a buzzing sound, just as the vocal cords vibrate when you talk or sing. Find a comb with thin flexible teeth. Fold a piece of tissue or wax paper in half, then cut the folded sheet to the size of the comb. Hold the comb and drape the paper over it, letting the paper hang loosely. To play: Put your mouth and say â€Å"do do do† until you feel the paper tingle against your lips. Once you’ve got the hang of it, try singing notes and using different syllables to change the sound. What to Play When your band’s assembled, try some traditional melodies the sillier the better! This is your chance to brush up on old tunes like â€Å"She’ll be Coming Round the Mountain† and â€Å"Oh, Susanna.†Ã‚   And if you want to try some other kinds of improvised instruments,  you can find plenty of inspiration.  For example, the stage musical  STOMP  uses push brooms, matchbooks, and paint scrapers to create rhythm. And the  Blue Man Group  plays tunes on instruments made out of PVC pipes and boat antennas. They prove that  there’s music in almost any object you can imagine.